Tuesday, 16 December 2014

Can the vaccine be a cause for MS??

A sudden and sharp increase in the number of multiple sclerosis (MS) cases diagnosed in France back in the mid-1990s appears to have its roots in a mass vaccination campaign for hepatitis B that was launched by the World Health Organization (WHO), according to new epidemiological data published in the journal Immunologic Research.

In accordance with WHO recommendations, France implemented a campaign in 1992 promoting hepatitis B vaccines, for which 20 million French adults -- or roughly one-third of the country -- agreed to be vaccinated between the years of 1994 and 1997. By 1998, however, massive spikes in MS cases began to dominate headlines in the French media.

Prior to 1993, when the hepatitis B vaccine campaign first began, there were about 2,500 new cases of MS in France annually. Immediately after the campaign was launched, and especially after 1996, that number nearly doubled to 4,500 new MS cases per year. The most obvious cause, according to many health experts, was the vaccine.

Immediately following this revelation, vaccination rates plummeted in France and suspicions about how the hepatitis B vaccine might be triggering MS began to emerge. One hypothesis suggested that a protein in the vaccine might be very similar to a protein naturally found in myelin, the protective coating around nerve fibers that is attacked by the immune system in MS sufferers.

Since that time, multiple research projects have aimed to better understand the correlation between Hepatitis B vaccines and MS. One French study found that the actual number of MS cases linked to hepatitis B vaccines is 2.5 times higher than previously assumed, while another case-controlled epidemiological study observed a definitive increased risk of MS within three years following vaccination.

These studies and others were included in the latest review, which confirmed a "significant correlation" between Hepatitis B vaccines and MS cases. A graph featured in the study shows a massive spike in MS cases in 1996, which directly matches the 2-3-year period following vaccination that previous studies had found was when most MS cases would likely emerge due to the vaccine.

"The positive and statistically significant correlation between HB vaccine exposure and reported MS incidence is consistently observed in different places, circumstances, and times," wrote the authors. "The figures available in France thus show a definite statistical signal in favor of a causal link between the HB vaccine event and the apparition of MS with a maximum correlation in the 2 years following immunization."

Thursday, 30 October 2014

SCIENCE BEHIND HINDU TRADITIONS

1.  Joining Both Palms together to Greet

nepal-girl
In Hindu culture, people greet each other by joining their palms – termed as “Namaskar.” The general reason behind this tradition is that greeting by joining both the palms means respect. However, scientifically speaking, joining both hands ensures joining the tips of all the fingers together; which are denoted to the pressure points of eyes, ears, and mind. Pressing them together is said to activate the pressure points which helps us remember that person for a long time. And, no germs since we don’t make any physical contact!

2. Why do Indian Women wear Toe Ring

rong toe
image courtesy
Wearing toe rings is not just the significance of married women but there is science behind it. Normally toe rings are worn on the second toe. A particular nerve from the second toe connects the uterus and passes to heart. Wearing toe ring on this finger strengthens the uterus. It will keep it healthy by regulating the blood flow to it and menstrual cycle will be regularized. As Silver is a good conductor, it also absorbs polar energies from the earth and passes it to the body.

3. Throwing Coins into a River

Talakaveri coins desinema
The general reasoning given for this act is that it brings Good Luck. However, scientifically speaking, in the ancient times, most of the currency used was made of copper unlike the stainless steel coins of today. Copper is a vital metal very useful to the human body. Throwing coins in the river was one way our fore-fathers ensured we intake sufficient copper as part of the water as rivers were the only source of drinking water. Making it a custom ensured that all of us follow the practice.

4. Applying Tilak/KumKum on the Forehead

kumkum desinema
On the forehead, between the two eyebrows, is a spot that is considered as a major nerve point in human body since ancient times. The Tilak is believed to prevent the loss of “energy”, the red ‘kumkum’ between the eyebrows is said to retain energy in the human body and control the various levels of concentration. While applying kumkum the points on the mid-brow region and Adnya-chakra are automatically pressed. This also facilitates the blood supply to the face muscles.

5. Why do Temples have Bells

temple_bell desinema
People who are visiting the temple should and will Ring the bell before entering the inner sanctum (Garbhagudi or Garbha Gruha or womb-chamber) where the main idol is placed. According to Agama Sastra, the bell is used to give sound for keeping evil forces away and the ring of the bell is pleasant to God. However, the scientific reason behind bells is that their ring clears our mind and helps us stay sharp and keep our full concentration on devotional purpose. These bells are made in such a way that when they produce a sound it creates a unity in the Left and Right parts of our brains. The moment we ring the bell, it produces a sharp and enduring sound which lasts for minimum of 7 seconds in echo mode. The duration of echo is good enough to activate all the seven healing centres in our body. This results in emptying our brain from all negative thoughts.

6. Why We Start with Spice & End with Sweet:

indian thali desinema
Our ancestors have stressed on the fact that our meals should be started off with something spicy and sweet dishes should be taken towards the end. The significance of this eating practice is that while spicy things activate the digestive juices and acids and ensure that the digestion process goes on smoothly and efficiently, sweets or carbohydrates pulls down the digestive process. Hence, sweets were always recommended to be taken as a last item.

7.  Why Do We Applying Mehendi/Henna on the Hand and Feet

mehandi
Besides lending color to the hands, mehndi is a very powerful medicinal herb. Weddings are stressful, and often, the stress causes headaches and fevers. As the wedding day approaches, the excitement mixed with nervous anticipation can take its toll on the bride and groom. Application of mehndi can prevent too much stress because it cools the body and keeps the nerves from becoming tense. This is the reason why mehndi is applied on the hands and feet, which house nerve endings in the body.

8. Sitting on the Floor & Eating

sit on floor and eat
This tradition is not just about sitting on floor and eating, it is regarding sitting in the “Sukhasan” position and then eating. Sukhasan is the position we normally use for Yoga asanas. When you sit on the floor, you usually sit cross legged – In sukhasana or a half padmasana  (half lotus), which are poses that instantly bring a sense of calm and help in digestion, it is believed to automatically trigger the signals to your brain to prepare the stomach for digestion.

9. Why you should not to sleep with Your Head towards North

sleep south
Myth is that it invites ghost or death but science says that it is because human body has its own magnetic field (Also known as hearts magnetic field, because the flow of blood) and Earth is a giant magnet. When we sleep with head towards north, our body’s magnetic field become completely asymmetrical to the Earth’s Magnetic field. That cause problems related to blood pressure and our heart needs to work harder in order to overcome this asymmetry of Magnetic fields. Apart from this another reason is that Our body have significant amount of iron in our blood. When we sleep in this position, iron from the whole body starts to congregate in brain. This can cause headache, Alzheimer’s Disease, Cognitive Decline, Parkinson disease and brain degeneration.

10. Why We Pierce Ear

ear ring
Piercing the ears has a great importance in Indian ethos. Indian physicians and philosophers believe that piercing the ears helps in the development of intellect, power of thinking and decision making faculties. Talkativeness fritters away life energy. Ear piercing helps in speech-restraint. It helps to reduce impertinent behavior and the ear-channels become free from disorders. This idea appeals to the Western world as well, and so they are getting their ears pierced to wear fancy earrings as a mark of fashion.

11. Surya Namaskar

suryanamaskar 3
Hindus have a tradition of paying regards to Sun God early in the morning by their water offering ritual. It was mainly because looking at Sun rays through water or directly at that time of the day is good for eyes and also by waking up to follow this routine, we become prone to a morning lifestyle and mornings are proven to be the most effective part of the day.

12. Choti on the Male Head

Student of university of Madras
Sushrut rishi, the foremost surgeon of Ayurveda, describes the master sensitive spot on the head as Adhipati Marma, where there is a nexus of all nerves. The shikha protects this spot. Below, in the brain, occurs the Brahmarandhra, where the sushumn√£ (nerve) arrives from the lower part of the body. In Yog, Brahmarandhra is the highest, seventh chakra, with the thousand-petalled lotus. It is the centre of wisdom. The knotted shikh√£ helps boost this centre and conserve its subtle energy known as ojas.

13. Why do we Fast

fasting desinema
The underlying principle behind fasting is to be found in Ayurveda. This ancient Indian medical system sees the basic cause of many diseases as the accumulation of toxic materials in the digestive system. Regular cleansing of toxic materials keeps one healthy. By fasting, the digestive organs get rest and all body mechanisms are cleansed and corrected. A complete fast is good for heath, and the occasional intake of warm lemon juice during the period of fasting prevents the flatulence. Since the human body, as explained by Ayurveda, is composed of 80% liquid and 20% solid, like the earth, the gravitational force of the moon affects the fluid contents of the body. It causes emotional imbalances in the body, making some people tense, irritable and violent. Fasting acts as antidote, for it lowers the acid content in the body which helps people to retain their sanity. Research suggests there are major health benefits to caloric restriction like reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, immune disorders etc.

14. The scientific explanation of touching Feet (charan sparsh)

feet
Usually, the person of whose feet you are touching is either old or pious. When they accept your respect which came from your reduced ego (and is called your shraddha) their hearts emit positive thoughts and energy (which is called their karuna) which reaches you through their hands and toes. In essence, the completed circuit enables flow of energy and increases cosmic energy, switching on a quick connect between two minds and hearts. To an extent, the same is achieved through handshakes and hugs. The nerves that start from our brain spread across all your body. These nerves or wires end in the fingertips of your hand and feet. When you join the fingertips of your hand to those of their opposite feet, a circuit is immediately formed and the energies of two bodies are connected. Your fingers and palms become the ‘receptor’ of energy and the feet of other person become the ‘giver’ of energy.

15. Why Married Women apply Sindoor or Vermillion

Aishwarya-Rai_sindoor
It is interesting to note that that the application of sindoor by married women carries a physiological significance. This is so because Sindoor is prepared by mixing turmeric-lime and the metal mercury. Due to its intrinsic properties, mercury, besides controlling blood pressure also activates sexual drive. This also explains why Sindoor is prohibited for the widows. For best results, Sindoor should be applied right upto the pituitary gland where all our feelings are centered. Mercury is also known for removing stress and strain.

16. Why do we worship Peepal Tree

pipal
Peepal’ tree is almost useless for an ordinary person, except for its shadow. ‘Peepal’ does not a have a delicious fruit, its wood is not strong enough for any purpose then why should a common villager or person worship it or even care for it? Our ancestors knew that ‘Peepal’ is one of the very few trees (or probably the only tree) which produces oxygen even at night. So in order to save this tree because of its unique property they related it to God/religion.

17. Why do we worship Tulsi Plant

thulsi

Hindu religion has bestowed ‘Tulsi’, with the status of mother. Also known as ‘Sacred or Holy Basil’, Tulsi, has been recognized as a religious and spiritual devout in many parts of the world. The vedic sages knew the benefits of Tulsi and that is why they personified it as a Goddess and gave a clear message to the entire community that it needs to be taken care of by the people, literate or illiterate. We try to protect it because it is like Sanjeevani for the mankind. Tulsi has great medicinal properties. It is a remarkable antibiotic. Taking Tulsi everyday in tea or otherwise increases immunity and help the drinker prevent diseases, stabilize his or her health condition, balance his or her body system and most important of all, prolong his or her life. Keeping Tulsi plant at home prevents insects and mosquitoes from entering the house. It is said that snakes do not dare to go near a Tulsi plant. Maybe that is why ancient people would grow lots of Tulsi near their houses.

18. Why do we worship Idol

statue
Hinduism propagates idol worship more than any other religion. Researchers say that this was initiated for the purpose of increasing concentration during prayers. According to psychiatrists, a man will shape his thoughts as per what he sees. If you have 3 different objects in front of you, your thinking will change according to the object you are viewing. Similarly, in ancient India, idol worship was established so that when people view idols it is easy for them to concentrate to gain spiritual energy and meditate without mental diversion

19. Why do Indian Women wear Bangles

Girls-Bangles-1
Normally the wrist portion is in constant activation on any human. Also the pulse beat in this portion is mostly checked for all sorts of ailments. The Bangles used by women are normally in the wrist part of ones hand and its constant friction increases the blood circulation level. Further more the electricity passing out through outer skin is again reverted to one’s own body because of the ring shaped bangles, which has no ends to pass the energy outside but to send it back to the body.

20. Why should we visit temple?

why-visit-temples
Temples are located strategically at a place where the positive energy is abundantly available from the magnetic and electric wave distributions of north/south pole thrust. The main idol is placed in the core center of the temple, known as “*Garbhagriha*” or *Moolasthanam*. In fact, the temple structure is built after the idol has been placed. This *Moolasthanam* is where earth’s magnetic waves are found to be maximum. We know that there are some copper plates, inscribed with Vedic scripts, buried beneath the Main Idol. What are they really? No, they are not God’s / priests’ flash cards when they forget the *shlokas*. The copper plate absorbs earth’s magnetic waves and radiates it to the surroundings. Thus a person regularly visiting a temple and walking clockwise around the Main Idol receives the beamed magnetic waves and his body absorbs it. This is a very slow process and a regular visit will let him absorb more of this positive energy. Scientifically, it is the positive energy that we all require to have a healthy life.

Sunday, 6 July 2014

How to Stop Absorbing Other People’s Emotions...


http://themindunleashed.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/stop-absorning.jpg
Emotions such as fear, anger, frustration, and immobility are energies. And you can potentially ‘catch’ these energies from people without realizing it. If you tend to be an emotional sponge, it’s vital to know how to avoid taking on an individual’s negative emotions, or even how to deflect the free-floating negativities in crowds.
Another twist is that chronic anxiety, depression, or stress can turn you into an emotional sponge by wearing down your defenses. Suddenly, you become hyper-attuned to others, especially suffering with similar pain. That’s how empathy works; we zero in on hot-button issues that are unresolved in ourselves.
From an energetic standpoint, negative emotions can originate from several sources: what you’re feeling may be your own; it may be someone else’s; or it may be a combination. Here is how to tell the difference and strategically bolster your positive emotions so you don’t shoulder negativity that doesn’t belong to you.

Stop Absorbing Other People’s Emotions

1. Identify whether you’re susceptible. The person most likely to be overwhelmed by negative energies surrounding you is an “empath”, someone who acts as an “emotional sponge”. Signs that you might be an empath include:
  • People call you “hyper-sensitive”, “overly sensitive”, etc., and they don’t mean it as a compliment!
  • You sense fear, anxiety, and stress from other people and draw this into your body, resolving them as your own physical pain and symptoms. It doesn’t have to be people you don’t know or don’t like; you’re also impacted by friends, family, and colleagues.
  • You quickly feel exhausted, drained, and unhappy in the presence of crowds.
  • Noise, smells, and excessive talking can set off your nerves and anxiety.
  • You need to be alone to recharge your energy.
  • You’re less likely to intellectualize what you’re feeling. Your feelings are easily hurt.
  • You’re naturally giving, generous, spiritually inclined, and a good listener.
  • You tend to ensure that you’ve got an escape plan, so that you can get away fast, such as bringing your own car to events, etc.
  • The intimacy of close relationships can feel like suffocation or loss of your own self.
2. Seek the source. First, ask yourself whether the feeling is your own or someone else’s. It could be both. If the emotion such as fear or anger is yours, gently confront what’s causing it on your own or with professional help. If not, try to pinpoint the obvious generator.
  • For instance, if you’ve just watched a comedy, yet you came home from the movie theater feeling blue, you may have incorporated the depression of the people sitting beside you; in close proximity, energy fields overlap.
  • The same is true with going to a mall or a packed concert. If crowded places upset or overwhelm you, it may well be because you’re absorbing all the negative energy around you.
3. Distance yourself from the suspected source, where possible.Move at least twenty feet away; see if you feel relief. Don’t err on the side of not wanting to offend strangers. In a public place, don’t hesitate to change seats if you feel a sense of depression imposing on you.
4. Center yourself by concentrating on your breath. Doing this connects you to your essence. For a few minutes, keep exhaling negativity, inhaling calm. This helps to ground yourself and purify fear or other difficult emotions. Visualize negativity as gray fog lifting from your body, and hope as golden light entering. This can yield quick results.
5. Flush out the harm. Negative emotions such as fear frequently lodge in your emotional center at the solar plexus (celiac plexus).
  • Place your palm on your solar plexus as you keep sending loving-kindness to that area to flush stress out.
  • For longstanding depression or anxiety, use this method daily to strengthen this center. It’s comforting and it builds a sense of safety and optimism as it becomes a ritual.
susc-3
6. Shield yourself. A handy form of protection many people use, including healers with trying patients, involves visualizing an envelope of white light (or any color you feel imparts power) around your entire body. Think of it as a shield that blocks out negativity or physical discomfort but allows what’s positive to filter in.
7. Manage the emotional overload. You don’t need to be beholden to your ability to absorb other’s emotions; turn the curse into a gift by practicing strategies that can free you:
  • Learn to recognize people who can bring you down. People who are particularly difficult for emotional empaths include criticizer, the victim, the narcissist, and the controller. Judith Orloff terms these people “emotional vampires”. When you know how to spot these behaviors, you can protect yourself against them, including removing yourself from their presence, and telling yourself that “I respect the person you are within even though I don’t like what you’re doing.”
  • Eat a high protein meal before entering stressful situations such as being part of a crowd. When in a crowd, find places of refuge, such as sitting on the edges, or standing apart.
  • Ensure that you don’t have to rely on other people to get you out of difficult situations. Bring your own car or know how to get home easily when needed. Have sufficient funds to be able to make alternate arrangements if you start feeling overwhelmed.
  • Set time limits. Knowing how much you can stand and obeying that limit is vital to ensure your mental well-being. Also set kind but meaningful boundaries with others who overwhelm you; don’t stand around listening to them talking for two hours when you can only cope with half an hour.
  • Have your own private place in a home shared with others. Ask others to respect your downtime during which you can rejuvenate. This is especially important to prevent you from taking on your partner’s feelings too much. A study, man cave, sewing room, reading nook, etc., all offer your own space.
  • Practice meditation and mindfulness.
8. Look for positive people and situations. Call a friend who sees the good in others. Spend time with a colleague who affirms the bright side of things. Listen to hopeful people. Hear the faith they have in themselves and others. Also relish hopeful words, songs, and art forms. Hope is contagious and it will lift your mood.
  • Cultivate positive emotions that boost your inner strength. If you’re surrounded by peace and love, you’ll flourish as strongly as negative emotions cause you to wilt. Respecting your own needs through healthy self love will increase your ability to respect others.
  • Learn to use compassion as a way to defend yourself against overwhelming emotions. Compassion allows you to be empathetic to the plight of other people but also requires that you are compassionate toward yourself. This means that you don’t need to feel guilty about seeking respite from being overwhelmed; doing so ensures that you can be more engaged with others in the long run, rather than less so. It also means that you keep yourself whole by not immersing yourself in the world of negative people.
9. Create and maintain a haven for disengagement. Leave many paths open that lead to communing with the resonance of nature. Returning to your rightful home as a creature of nature switches off your victim mentality and recharges you energetically and spiritually.
  • Keep a picture of a waterfall or a lush forest with you and look at it when overwhelmed.
  • Step onto the quiet of a forest path or absorb the coolness of a gently babbling brook from beneath a weeping willow.
  • Maintain a your personal space of cozy retreat where you hook into your own personal power and energy.
  • Practise Yoga and breathing techniques. These draw upon emotional centering and provide safe harbor in times of storm.

Saturday, 5 July 2014

?!?!WHAT?!?!

A parasitic egg was discovered by archeologists in Northern Syria, near the pelvis of a child’s skeleton. They say the skeleton dates back to when the ancient societies started growing crops using irrigation systems. Farming with irrigation means farmers spent most of their time on the farms, wading in warm water. These are ideal conditions for these parasites to get into the human body. They may also have triggered outbreaks of schistosomiasis, a water-borne flatworm disease.
6,200-year-old parasite egg found

A Near Eastern Archeology professor at University of Chicago, Gil Stein in an email said that, “the invention of irrigation was a major technological breakthrough (but) it had unintended consequences. A more reliable food supply came at the cost of more disease.”

As people wade through the warm fresh water, the flatworm parasite enters their skin: snails carry the worms and they easily burrow into a human’s skin. When they grow into adult form, the worms live in the kidneys, bladder, intestines and any other place in the body for many years. Symptoms caused by these parasites include rashes, fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, and leg paralysis. The disease can, however, be treated easily today using drugs that kill the worms.

Evidence of barley and wheat farming was found in the town where the skeletons were found, according to Stein. Irrigation of these crops could have spurred other diseases like malaria, due to the pools of stagnant water that are good mosquito breeding grounds.

Another study author, Piers Mitchell, said that the global transmission of these flatworm parasites could have been inadvertently launched by ancient farming societies. These worms now cause sicknesses to many people every year. In developing countries, modern methods of farming are still helping spread diseases. “In many parts of Africa, someone clever decides to put in a dam or an artificial water source and then 10 years later, everyone’s getting schistosomiasis,” she said.

This research is available in the journal of Lancet Infectious Diseases online
Other experts agree that irrigation could have been what helped spread the parasitic diseases from the beginning, in ancient times. Quentin Bickle, was one of them. He is a parasite expert at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. "Egypt along the Nile was a hotspot for generations because people were crammed into the flood plain and there were probably a lot of people who had low-level (flatworm) infections for their entire lives. People would have known there was something weird going on but they wouldn't have known what to do”

Tuesday, 15 April 2014

Multiple Sclerosis hookworm trial

Multiple Sclerosis hookworm trial for RRMS patients

The University of Nottingham is recruiting people, suffering from Multiple Sclerosis, on a trial that involves the infection of patients with a low, harmless dose of the helminth parasite Necator americanus (hookworm).

Professor Pritchard said: “This study appears counter-intuitive — we are introducing a parasite which is by definition harmful, to act as a stimulus to moderate disease. As a safeguard the hookworms are being used in carefully controlled and monitored conditions, and if successful could herald a much-needed therapy for MS patients".

50% of the patients on the trial will receive a low dose of the hookworms-25 microscopic larvae-on an arm plaster, whereas the other half will receive a placebo plaster. When the larvae will come into contact with the skin, they will enter the blood stream and will reach the lungs. They will ultimately, be coughed up and swallowed to get to their final destination-the gut. Here,ost's blood. they survive by sticking to the gut lining and feeding on the host. The worms do not multiply in the host but reproduce by producing fertile eggs, which are expelled in faecal matter. These hatch into infective larvae outside the body, and are used to infect patients.

This treatment might be helpful because it will switch on the TH2 cell pathway (to fight the parasites) and will switch off the TH1 pathway involved in the Multiple Sclerosis mechanism.

LINK: http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/news/pressreleases/2012/february/hookwormtrial.aspx

Tuesday, 25 February 2014

GOOD NEWS FOR RRMS PATIENTS

MORE VARIETY OF ORAL DRUGS FOR RELAPSING-REMITTING MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

1. Aubagio

Chemical name: Terifluonamide
Also known as: A77 1726 
Mechanism of action: This chemical inhibits cells that proliferate rapidly by inhibition of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (required by rapidly dividing cells).  Also, Aubagio blocks the denovo pyrimidine synthesis and so, exerts a cytostatic effect on stimulated proliferation of T and B cells. Hence, it targets overreactive immune responses and avoids their migration into the central nervous system. It does not hamper or stop the pyrimidine salvage pathway and so, the functions of normal and slowly-dividing lyphocytes are maintained.


2. Tecfidera

Chemical Name: Dimethyl Fumarate
Mechanism of action: It is immuno-modulatory and also has anti-inflammatory properties. Hence, it induces the formation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. It may also have neuroprotective effects as it activates a substance critical for cellular damage/oxidative stress resistance.

These are both first line disease modifying drug therapies, which is good news for those with relapsing/remitting MS!



Wednesday, 5 February 2014

Phase I clinical trials for Multiple Sclerosis using bone marrow cells

CLINICAL TRIALS FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS APPROVED

Multiple Sclerosis is an auto-immune disorder in which the immune system attacks the myelin sheath covering the neurons. This myelin sheath on axonal parts is essential for the conduction of signals/messages from the brain to the various muscles of the body.

The mesechymal stem cells are those derived from the bone marrow. The approved phase I clinical trial will primarily determine the safety of introducing autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cell-derived neural progenitors (MSC-NPs). The isolated and expanded autologous MSC-NPs will be injected into the spinal theca and, this will be done for six months. It is a three-year study during which the participants will have follow-up visits frequently and upto 27 months followed by the final injection.

The proof-of-concept was exhibited in the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model (Harris et al., J Neurol Sci, 2012). This study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of MSC-NPs in EAE mice. This study showed that the injected MSC-NPs influenced the rate of repair by migrating to the demyelinated areas and effecting the endogeneous progenitors in the spinal cord. The protocol of the clinical trial, regarding dosage and its frequency, comes from this research.

SOMATIC TO PLURIPOTENT CONVERSION BY DECREASED pH

SOMATIC TO PLURIPOTENT CONVERSION BY DECREASED pH

Hi everyone!
According to a recent research performed by Haruko et al., somatic cells can be converted into pluripotent cells by lowering the pH, that is, dipping them in acid. This procedure of reprogramming cells has been quoted as 'Stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency' i.e. STAP.
As per the epigenetics, the pluripotent cells have the 'stemness' genes demethylated. The research reports that these reprogrammed cells showed a significant decrease in DNA methylation in the regulatory regions of pluripotency marker genes.
In addition, the injection of these cells into blastocysts generated chimeras via germline transmission. And, the derivation of expandable pluripotent cell lines has also been demonstrated.

Link to the article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v505/n7485/full/nature12968.html